National Chemistry

2005 Credit        Hints

2005 Credit        first thoughts


                              almost the answers

                              SQA answers


1. (a) Look up data book - page 4

(b) Write electronic arrangements in the boxes of the atoms.

What is the electronic arrangement of the calcium ion?

(c) What elements in a covalent compound? Must be non-metals.


2.(a) What fuel is camping gas ?  If fuel is used as a gas it is not a liquid.

(b) Highest must be at top or bottom - must be an extreme.

Really thick liquid


3. The carbohydrates are listed in the correct order

(a) Which carbohydrate is not paired up?

If it does not dissolve well it must be biggest

(b) One of the pairings. What does 'di' suggest


4. (a) Must have boiled before 0oC

(b) molOWcules -  TWO with low melting points.

Reduces it to four substances. You would expect the 'conducts' columns to be the same for both molecules.


5. Molecular formula written in each box

C4H10,,  C3H6, C4H10, C4H10,  C4H8,   C4H8,   C3H6

(a) Must be made from propene. How many carbons in propene - page 6

(b) need to match general formula which tells you 'double number of hydrogens' and not react with bromine

(c) Write the molecular formula of substance asked about. C4H8


6. Electrons at the right hand side.

use page 7


7. Beware of statements that are true for only one of the acids.

Treat as true/false statements for each acid.

A. Do acids react with Mg ?

B. do acids have pH less than 7 ?

C. do acids conduct electricity ?

D. do these acids contain chlorine ?

E do acids contain more hydrogen ions than pure water


8. Rewrite metals in a column, as on page 7, because that is the way you are used to. It is near the bottom.

Read the boxes in terms of reactivity

A. X reacts faster than copper

B. Oxide of X harder to beak down than silver oxide

C. Magnesium kicks out X

D. X more reactive than nickel

E. Compounds of X easier to destroy than compounds of zinc



9. Check the ones involving iron first.

Rusting is oxidation - any examples of iron being oxidised ?



Part 2


10. (a) (i) Copy from the data book.

Oxidation is loss (OIL)

(ii) protection !! Zinc protecting steel (iron).

(b) use page 7.

Cobalt makes the steel (iron) rust; zinc did not let the iron rust.


11. (a) You need three monomers together - how many carbons along the backbone ?

                  3 x 2 = 6 C joined is the main structure

(b) Write the molecular formula of the molecule.    C8H8

How much carbon out of whole structure ?




12. (a) There are three formula so you should be able to work out a general formula using 'n' instead of numbers.  CH4, C2H6,  C3H8  = Cn......

(b) (i) Page 6 goes up to octane (126oC)so deduce one for nonane.

(ii) cannot say 'speed up the reaction'

(c) Concentrate on the carbons in each molecule

      ie   2 x carbon   +   2 x carbon   ------>  4 x carbon


13. Read the question. It is long but straight forward.

(a) (i) Look at graph - the example had 2 isotpes.

(ii) Same as the example - different figures

    example reads  (mass of isotope A x %) + (mass of isotope B x %)




    from the graph this is      (35 x 75)  + (37 x 25)





(b)You are being asked about an ion.

Get electronic configuration for the atom from the data book and make it an ion.



14. (a) You have done this experiment with sulphuric acid.

Why is there solid remaining?

(b) How do you make it into solid crystals?

Get rid of that solid. Get rid of the water


15. (a) Get electronic arrangement of nitrogen. You need two of them for N2

Draw a circle to represent the outer electrons only.

(b) (i) What were the two processes in nitrogen chemistry?  H  and  O

(ii) Not a lot of information. Wquestion suggets that you still want heat. Why would you be able to stop heating something that still wants heat ?


16. (a) Rewrite on paper so you can do the working.

One H on both sides, one Cl on both sides - Na causes first problem


HCl   +   Na2S2O3      ---->  NaCl   +   S   +   SO2   +   H2O


Need to go back to chlorine


(b)(i) Label axes and make scales. First column goes along the x axes

(ii) Extend the line to meet 60oC

(iii) as ' temperature' increases speed ........

(c) Look at diagram - does it suggest anything. You have changed temperature so do not pick that.


17. (a) Carbohydrates listed in Q3 - Glucose is first= 6C

(b) (i) think on chemical reactions that involve carbon.

(ii) Look at diagram - test tube A has enzyme in boiling water

test tube B has acid in boiling water


18. (a) Write in words first

       copper(II) oxide  +  hydrogen ---> copper   +   water


(b) What colour is copper(II) oxide in the first place? Tells you on the diagram. What colour would copper be ?

(c) Comparing calcium and copper - open page 7.



19. (a) Mark arrow on diagram on wire. Which electrode has electrons leaving it. You need to look at the information below.

(b) What does made by the cell? Electricity

How is electricity travel in solutions ?

(c) What is not present in sugar. May help with previous question.

Sugar is a carbohydrate - what type of bonding ?

(d) (i) look in data book for its position. Number 78

(ii) What gases are produced in car exhausts?


20. (a) A salt is formed- products on right hand side

(b) Copy out equation and underline the chemicals you are asked about (hydrogen) and told about (aluminium)


           2Al   +   3H2SO4   ----->   Al2(SO4)3   +   3H2

step 2 - how many moles of each

           2 moles of Al         ----->           3 moles of H2

step 3 - mass of each side

                 2 x 27               ----->               3 x 6